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Stephen Decatur High School A168 Historical Site

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Chapter 6 Learning

1.     Psychologists have defined learning as

a.     the modification through experience of preexisting behavior and understanding.

b.     the systematic organization of information that facilitates later recall and use.

c.     a temporary change in behavior that results from past experience.

d.     the adaptation of instinctual responses to new environments.

2.     Lenny can’t reach the bathroom shelf where his father keeps the razor, but he continues trying, day after day. Eventually he becomes tall enough to reach the shelf and does so. How would Lenny’s behavior be classified by learning theorists?

a.     Lenny’s new behavior is the result of maturation, not learning.

b.     Lenny has finally learned how to reach the bathroom shelf.

c.     Lenny has learned an association between his own physical growth and reaching high places.

d.     Lenny is not very bright or he would have used a stool to reach the shelf earlier.

3.     One of the body’s typical responses to heroin is depressed breathing. If a buzzer is sounded immediately before a heroin injection, the buzzer will become a conditioned stimulus. The conditioned response elicited by the sound of the buzzer will be

a.     no change in breathing.

b.     a decrease in breathing.

c.     an increase in breathing.

d.     first a decrease and later an increase in breathing.

4.     Scovie has just died from a cocaine overdose. Strangely, it turns out that the dose of cocaine that killed Scovie was no higher than doses Scovie had taken many times before without having any problems. What best explains why the same dosage of cocaine killed Scovie this time?

a.     Scovie developed tolerance to cocaine’s dangerous effects.

b.     All of Scovie’s previous cocaine usages had been in his dorm room, but this time Scovie took cocaine in a strange hotel room.

c.     This time, Scovie took cocaine at a slower rate than before.

d.     Benzodiazepines relieve anxiety by acting upon GABA.

5.     Every time Brandy drops a cricket into the cage of her pet tarantula, Chompers, he begins to salivate.  Brandy has gotten in the habit of playing her favorite CD when she feeds Chompers. After several pairings of the cricket and her favorite CD, all Brandy has to do is play the CD and Chompers begins to salivate.  In this example, Brandy’s favorite CD is the

a.     unconditioned stimulus.

b.     conditioned stimulus.

c.     unconditioned response.

d.     conditioned response.

6.     Andre is participating in a psychology study.  He is sitting alone in a room and every few seconds a bright light flashes in front of him. When the light flashes, he blinks.  After a while, a phone rings right before the flash of light.  Soon, Andre blinks when the phone rings. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is the

a.     phone ringing.

b.     flash of light.

c.     blinking after the flash.

d.     blinking after the ringing.

7.     When Ken kisses Barbie, his heart races.  For a month, Barbie snapped her fingers just before she kissed him.  She stopped snapping her fingers, but now whenever Ken hears someone snapping their fingers, his heart begins to race.  This is an example of ______ conditioning and finger snapping is the ______ .

a.     classical; conditioned stimulus

b.     operant; conditioned stimulus

c.     classical; primary reinforcer

d.     operant; primary reinforcer

8.     Joanna developed a phobia of dogs after a dog bit her on the leg. This can be explained as classical conditioning. The pain of the dog bite would be

a.     both the conditioned and the unconditioned stimulus.

b.     second-order conditioning.

c.     stimulus generalization.

d.     the unconditioned stimulus.

9.     Every time Bert slices onions, the onions burn his eyes and tears run down his face.  One day he opened the silverware drawer and pulled out the knife that he only uses to peel onions and immediately started to shed tears from the sight of the knife.  In this situation, the onion is the ______, and the knife is the _____.

a.     conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus

b.     unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus

c.     conditioned response; unconditioned response

d.     unconditioned response; conditioned response

10.   If a tone is sounded each time a puff of air is delivered to the eye, the tone alone will eventually produce eye blinks. In this example the ______________ is the conditioned stimulus and the ______________ is the conditioned response.

a.     puff of air; eye blink response to the puff of air

b.     puff of air; eye blink response to the tone

c.     tone; eye blink response to the puff of air

d.     tone; eye blink response to the tone

11.   After Maria drank coffee for the first time, she felt more awake. She then drank coffee every morning. Now when she even smells coffee, she feels more awake. Feeling more awake after just smelling the coffee is the

a.     conditioned stimulus.

b.     unconditioned stimulus.

c.     conditioned response.

d.     unconditioned response.

12.   Shamir reflexively kicked his leg when the doctor tapped him on the knee.  Later, the doctor began saying the word “Help” and then tapping Shamir on the knee.  After 45 trials of first saying “Help”, followed immediately by tapping the knee, on the 46th trial Shamir kicked his leg after hearing the word “Help”.  In this example, the word “Help” is the _____ and Shamir kicking his leg in response to the word help is the _____.

a.     unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response

b.     unconditioned stimulus; conditioned response

c.     conditioned stimulus; unconditioned response

d.     conditioned stimulus; conditioned response

13.   Reginald’s camera always makes a clicking noise just before the flash goes off. After taking many pictures of his little brother Devin, he presses the button, the camera clicks, but the flash does not go off.  Despite this, Devin blinks just as he did when the flash was working.  This is an example of ______ conditioning, and the flash is the ______.

a.     classical; unconditioned stimulus

b.     classical; unconditioned response

c.     operant; positive reinforcer

d.     operant; negative reinforcer

14.   In an experiment, a flash of light is paired with a mild electric shock to a subject’s finger. After several trials, the subject begins to pull the finger away after seeing the flash of light. The experimenter then begins to present just the flash, but no shock. After several trials the subject will

a.     keep pulling his finger away after seeing the light.

b.     pull his finger away sometimes but not others.

c.     gradually cease pulling his finger away after the flash of light.

d.     pull his finger away more quickly on each trial.

15.   Sniffy, the rat, has been taught to press a bar in a cage to receive food.  The behavior disappeared, though, when Sniffy stopped getting food following bar‑pressing. Several days later, Sniffy was put in the cage again, and he immediately began to press the bar. The reappearance of this response is called

a.     reconditioning.

b.     acquisition.

c.     instantaneous learning.

d.     spontaneous recovery.

16.   Pavlov’s dog is upset. Pavlov keeps ringing the buzzer but putting no meat powder in its mouth. The dog no longer salivates to the sound. A few weeks later the lab assistant begins once again to put meat powder in the dog’s mouth and ringing the buzzer. After only two or three pairings Ivan is once again salivating to the buzzer. This is an example of

a.     stimulus generalization.

b.     spontaneous recovery.

c.     stimulus discrimination.

d.     reconditioning.

17.   Bertha became conditioned to cry every time she saw an onion chopper because she associated it with cutting onions, which always made her eyes water.  For weeks, the onion cutter sat on the counter with no onions.  Eventually she never cried when she saw the cutter.  Then the onion cutter disappeared for 2 months, and when Bertha saw it again for the first time she began to cry, which is a response known as

a.     positive reinforcement.

b.     negative reinforcement.

c.     spontaneous recovery.

d.     reconditioning.

18.   Ignoring the attention-getting behavior of hyperactive children can be a helpful tool to classroom teachers, since often the frequency of the misbehavior will decrease and even stop. What operant conditioning process does this technique utilize?

a.     Negative reinforcement

b.     Shaping

c.     Stimulus discrimination

d.     Extinction

19.   Baby Abbey was playing with her favorite toy rattle when her mom dropped an armful of pots and pans behind her. The loud noise made her startle and cry. Subsequently, upon seeing her rattle, she cries. However, Mom continues to give Baby Abbey her favorite rattle and doesn’t drop any more pots and pans. We would expect that Baby Abbey’s crying when seeing the rattle would now

a.     extinguish.

b.     generalize.

c.     continue through intermittent reinforcement.

d.     decrease because of spontaneous recovery.

20.   Although Winston turns the water off in the shower when he hears someone flush a toilet, he does not do this when he hears someone turn on the bathroom sink faucet. This is because of stimulus

a.     generalization.

b.     reconditioning.

c.     predictability.

d.     discrimination.

21.   Hugo has learned to fear the bell on his phone because every time the phone rings a prank caller starts shouting at him. He now finds himself fearful of other bells, like bicycle bells and doorbells. Hugo is affected by stimulus

a.     control.

b.     generalization.

c.     degradation.

d.     discrimination.

22.   Five-year-old Sandrine jumps and cringes every time she hears thunder. Soon she cringes when she sees lightning because she knows that thunder will follow.  One day when she is at her first fireworks show, she cringes when she sees the flash of light from the first fireworks in the sky.  Sandrine is displaying

a.     reconditioning.

b.     spontaneous recovery.

c.     stimulus generalization.

d.     stimulus discrimination.

23.   Han is fearful of the powerful Jabba. Han becomes fearful when he hears Jabba’s low voice, but also becomes fearful when he hears any low voice. What phenomenon best explains Han’s tendency to become fearful when hearing any low voice?

a.     Extinction

b.     Reconditioning

c.     Stimulus generalization

d.     Stimulus discrimination

24.   Whenever your English teacher is giving a quiz, he carries the copies of the quiz into the room in a black box, and you react with anticipation. If he walks into the room with any other color box, you know that it is not a quiz and feel no anticipation. This illustrates the concept of stimulus

a.     control.

b.     degradation.

c.     discrimination.

d.     generalization.

25.   A dog in a classical conditioning experiment salivates to a buzzer but not to a bell. This is an example of

a.     stimulus generalization.

b.     partial reinforcement extinction effect.

c.     secondary reinforcement.

d.     stimulus discrimination.

26.   Bubba got sick after eating contaminated cantaloupe. Now, he won’t eat any type of melon. Bubba is demonstrating

a.     reconditioning.

b.     second-order conditioning.

c.     stimulus generalization.

d.     spontaneous recovery.

27.   After learning about Pavlov in class, Wendy wanted to condition her own dog, Beelzebub, to salivate at the sound of a bell. Which of the following would be the most effective method for Wendy to use to produce a strong conditioned response in Beelzebub?

a.     Present the bell and the food at the same time.

b.     Present the bell and then after it stops ringing, present the food.

c.     Present the bell first, and then present the food while the bell is still ringing.

d.     Present the food, and then after the food is eaten, present the bell.

28.   Often, after Brad’s alarm rang, he would turn it off and fall back to sleep. His mother found that nothing woke him up except dumping a bag of frozen marbles in bed with him. For a week, whenever Brad’s alarm rang, he turned it off, fell asleep, and then jumped out of bed wide awake when the cold marbles touched him. After that week, however, he awakened as soon as his alarm rang. Brad would have been conditioned more quickly if

a.     the unconditioned stimulus weren’t so strong.

b.     the conditioned stimulus weren’t so strong.

c.     his mother had thrown the icy marbles on him one second after his alarm rang.

d.     his mother only used the marbles once in a while.

29.   Victoria wants to teach her pet zebra, Spot, to bray (a sound similar to that of a mule) whenever Spot hears the song “Too Legit to Quit.” She already knows that Spot will bray when she pulls his tail. She also took introductory psychology, so she knows that the most effective way to condition Spot would be to

a.     pull Spot’s tail and then play “Too Legit to Quit.”

b.     play “Too Legit to Quit” first, and after it finishes pull Spot’s tail.

c.     play “Too Legit to Quit” first, and while it is still playing pull Spot’s tail.

d.     start to play “Too Legit to Quit” and pull Spot’s tail at the exact same moment.

30.   During a storm, Mohammed experienced lightning flashes followed a few seconds later by very loud thunder. Now he cringes every time he sees a flash of lightning. Mohammed experienced what kind of conditioning?

a.     Backward

b.     Simultaneous

c.     Delayed

d.     Forward

31.   A tape of loud trumpet music begins to play, and then a puff of air is blown into Sarah’s eye. The air puff ends at the same time as the trumpet music. After a while, Sarah blinks when the trumpet music starts. This type of pairing between a CS and UCS illustrates ______________ conditioning.

a.     simultaneous

b.     forward

c.     trace

d.     backward

32.   In a classical conditioning paradigm, a red light is flashed whenever a rat gets shocked. After several pairings of the light and shock, the rat shows an increase in heart rate in response to the red light alone. The rat will learn this association fastest if the red light

a.     is flashed first, there is a one-half second pause, and then the shock is given.

b.     is flashed first and the shock is given while the light is still on.

c.     and the shock begin and end at exactly the same time.

d.     is flashed after the shock is given.

33.   Jackie is beginning first grade.  Everyday, the teacher walks into the classroom and loudly smacks a ruler on the desk, causing the children to jump.  The teacher develops a habit of clearing her throat, “Uhmmm,” and then slamming down the ruler.  Soon all the teacher has to do is clear her throat and the children jump.  In this scenario, clearing her throat is the ______ while the kids jumping to the sound of throat clearing is the ______.

a.     unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response

b.     unconditioned stimulus; conditioned response

c.     conditioned stimulus; unconditioned response

d.     conditioned stimulus; conditioned response

34.   Gabby is a 6 year-old girl who has an allergy and becomes nauseated when she eats peanut butter.  One day her mother gave her a peanut butter and jelly sandwich on a new red plate.  Gabby got sick after eating it.  Later her mom gives her a turkey sandwich, which Gabby loves, on the same plate and Gabby gets sick.  Soon, all Gabby has to do is look at the red plate and she is nauseated.  In this situation ______ is the conditioned stimulus.

a.     ice cream

b.     the red plate

c.     turkey

d.     peanut butter

35.   Marlene’s parents spank her with a paddle whenever she misbehaves. Because of this, Marlene is afraid whenever the paddle is in sight. Her parents move the paddle to a closet that squeaks.  Marlene soon grows afraid of the squeak of the closet door because it predicts the appearance of the paddle, and the paddle predicts a spanking and pain. This is an example of ________ conditioning.

a.     backward

b.     second-order

c.     simultaneous

d.     escape

36.   Keren decides to try cotton candy for the first time. She enjoys it, but unfortunately, later that day Keren comes down with the stomach flu. Now the smell or thought of cotton candy makes her shudder and feel slightly nauseous.  This is an example of

a.     extinction.

b.     taste aversion.

c.     cotton candy phobia.

d.     learned immune response.

37.   Charlie Parker has experienced several pairings of electric shock with the Debbie Gibson song “Reverse Psychology” and has been successfully conditioned to react with anxiety to the song. Now, instead of being paired with the shock, the song is paired with a flashing green light (a previously neutral stimulus). If Charlie still reacts with anxiety when the green light is flashed without the song, he will have

a.     been shaped.

b.     displayed second-order conditioning.

c.     displayed spontaneous conditioning.

d.     successfully discriminated stimuli.

38.   Which of the following is true of taste-aversion conditioning?

a.     It almost never occurs in the animal kingdom.

b.     It appears to have an adaptive value.

c.     It requires very short time intervals between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.

d.     It occurs most readily when taste is paired with visual stimuli.

39.   Jon ate a hamburger that was contaminated with nasty bacteria.  While eating the burger, Jon was watching an episode of the television show Small Wonder.  Jon soon developed an aversion to hamburgers, but not to the television program, because of

a.     second order conditioning.

b.     stimulus generalization.

c.     biopreparedness.

d.     reconditioning.

40.   Every time Jethro picks up the phone, he gets a tiny electrical shock. Now, any time the phone rings, Jethro feels anxious. In fact, lately Jethro has begun to fear that people will call him, and he doesn’t even like to be in the same room as a phone. Jethro is exhibiting a classically conditioned

a.     stimulus discrimination.

b.     response reconditioning.

c.     phobic response.

d.     negative reinforcer.

41.   Talon drank one too many cans of “Jooky” last night. Talon spent the morning vomiting, and now even the smell of Jooky makes Talon nauseous. Talon is experiencing a ______________, which can best be explained by ______________ conditioning.

a.     taste aversion; operant

b.     taste aversion; classical

c.     learned immune response; operant

d.     learned immune response; classical

42.   Roxanne loves eating at her favorite restaurant, Chili’s. One night, she went to Chili’s with some friends and then went to see the movie Fight Club.  Shortly afterwards, she became violently ill.  After this incident, while Roxanne still enjoys watching Fight Club, she NO longer enjoys eating at Chili’s.  This is an example of

a.     biopreparedness.

b.     the law of effect.

c.     vicarious learning.

d.     learned immune responses.

43.   Systematic desensitization, which is used to treat phobias, is based on which learning paradigm?

a.     Operant conditioning

b.     Classical conditioning

c.     Social learning

d.     Instrumental learning

44.   Veronica is deathly afraid of pink highlighters.  To overcome her highlighter-phobia, Veronica saw a therapist who extinguished her fear of highlighters and conditioned her to learn a new relaxing response to highlighters.  The therapist’s technique is known as

a.     systematic desensitization.

b.     instrumental conditioning.

c.     reconditioning.

d.     operant conditioning.

45.   Rosie and Ginny decide to eat at a restaurant. When they arrive they are greeted promptly by the hostess. The waiter is efficient and the food is fantastic! They are likely to return to the restaurant because their decision to eat there was followed by a satisfying experience. This example illustrates

a.     the law of effect.

b.     the pleasure principle.

c.     Michelin’s law.

d.     the Garcia effect.

46.   Any response made to a specific stimulus, if followed by a reward, will be more likely to occur again in the presence of the same stimulus. This is the law of

a.     shaping.

b.     contiguity.

c.     learning.

d.     effect.

47.   Andrew got a Snicker’s candy bar when he did his math homework well.  He really liked the candy bar, so he worked harder on his next assignment.  Andrew is demonstrating

a.     immediate gratification.

b.     classical conditioning.

c.     social learning.

d.     the law of effect.

48.   Demetrius buys his cookies from Cookie Center because for every ten cookies he buys, he gets two free. Demetrius’s behavior is an example of

a.     the law of effect.

b.     classical conditioning.

c.     the principle of generalization.

d.     systematic desensitization.

49.   Tadd is trying to impress Tara. He knows that she is a fan of Jane Austen, so Tadd reads Emma, a Jane Austen book, and then talks with Tara about the book, surprising her with his knowledge. As a result of the conversation, Tara agrees to go out with Tadd on a date. Tadd reads other Jane Austin books after this experience.  This is an example of ______ conditioning.

a.     classical

b.     operant

c.     avoidance

d.     escape

50.   Tsvi, a 3-month-old baby, stops crying when he hears his parents’ Marching Illini CD.  Now, whenever he begins to cry, his parents play their Marching Illini CD.  Tsvi’s parents behavior of playing the CD is the result of

a.     classical conditioning.

b.     habituation.

c.     learned helplessness.

d.     operant conditioning.

51.   Stephanie has learned that if she cries after being put to bed, her parents will often return and pick her up. Crying is a(n)

a.     conditioned stimulus for Stephanie.

b.     conditioned response by Stephanie.

c.     operant response by Stephanie.

d.     unconditioned response by Stephanie.

52.   Every time the papergirl says to her customers, “I want my two dollars,” her customers give her money. In this example, saying “I want my two dollars” is a(n)

a.     operant.

b.     effect.

c.     effector.

d.     reinforcer.

53.   Pookie, the dog, quickly learns that when she scratches at the door, her owner will allow her to go outside to play. This is an example of ______________ conditioning.

a.     operant

b.     second-order

c.     avoidance

d.     classical

54.   Two-year-old Hannah said the word “hell” in the middle of dinner, and her parents immediately stopped talking to each other and scolded her. They spent the rest of the meal paying close attention to what Hannah said.  Later, Hannah says “hell” repeatedly, and each time her parents spend time talking to her and paying attention to her. In this situation, the parents’ attention is a ______ and Hannah’s inappropriate language is a(n) ______.

a.     positive reinforcer; conditioner

b.     negative reinforcer; operant

c.     positive reinforcer; operant

d.     punishment; operant

55.   Roslyn always used to shop at Penney’s because for every purchase over $20, she would get a 10-percent discount. But since Penney’s stopped offering this promotion, Roslyn has stopped shopping there. Her shopping behavior is best explained by

a.     operant conditioning.

b.     classical conditioning.

c.     the principle of generalization.

d.     systematic desensitization.

56.   After Nadia spills water all over her painting, her first grade art teacher gives her some M&M’s to make her feel better. The next time art class meets, Nadia promptly and purposefully spills water. The M&M’s acted as

a.     negative reinforcers.

b.     an activity preference.

c.     positive reinforcers.

d.     secondary reinforcers.

57.   One of the most difficult problems for any teacher is a child who consistently disrupts class.  Researchers have shown that giving attention in the form of scolding to a disruptive child actually increases the child’s misbehavior.  In the terms of operant conditioning, the scolding is

a.     a punisher.

b.     a penalty.

c.     a positive reinforcer.

d.     a negative reinforcer.

58.   Chris does not like it when his infant son, Jacob, cries. Chris finds that if he makes goofy faces while Jacob is crying, Jacob will stop. Which learning principle best explains why Chris is more likely in the future to make goofy faces to make Jacob stop crying?

a.     Positive reinforcement

b.     Classical conditioning

c.     Negative reinforcement

d.     Stimulus generalization

59.   Vanessa never applied sunscreen and as a result would get severely burned while lying out on the beach. After several severe sunburns, Vanessa finally began to apply sunscreen before lying on the beach, and she never was burnt again.  Vanessa learned to use sunscreen through the process of

a.     second-order conditioning.

b.     escape conditioning.

c.     positive reinforcement.

d.     negative reinforcement.

60.   Lavonne hates to listen to new age music. So, when Lavonne refuses to clean her room, her mother makes her stay in her room and plays new age music through the intercom. Her mother tells Lavonne that as soon as she finishes cleaning her room the music will be stopped.  This is an example of

a.     positive reinforcement.

b.     negative reinforcement.

c.     punishment.

d.     shaping.

61.   Eve breaks stuff when she gets angry.  Whenever Eve begins breaking things, her parents stop what they are doing and pay attention to her.  Now, Eve breaks things more than ever.  Apparently, her parents’ attention serves as a _____ for Eve’s behavior.

a.     positive reinforcer

b.     negative reinforcer

c.     penalty

d.     punishment  I

62.   It’s a very hot summer day and Ai is sweating in her apartment. She turns on the air conditioning and right away her apartment gets cooler. Because Ai is now more likely to turn on the AC when she is hot to reduce her discomfort, this is an example of

a.     positive reinforcement.

b.     negative reinforcement.

c.     punishment I.

d.     punishment II.

63.   Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?

a.     Not stealing cookies for fear of being spanked

b.     Learning to take aspirin for headaches

c.     Sewing a quilt to make your parents happy

d.     Studying for an exam to earn an A

64.   While at the grocery store, Jeremy begins to throw a fit because he wants a candy bar.  His mom gives him the candy bar so that he will stop screaming.  Jeremy’s mom experienced ______ conditioning.

a.      classical

b.     second-order

c.      avoidance

d.     escape

65.   Whenever Lisa’s aunts visit, they kiss her on the cheek. Lisa hates this and eventually learns that they will not kiss her if she is coughing. Now whenever her aunts enter her home, she pretends to cough. This is an example of

a.      avoidance conditioning.

b.     escape conditioning.

c.      latent learning.

d.     punishment.

66.   Whenever Calvin threw his sister’s doll in the toilet, his mother would lock Calvin in his room.  As soon as Calvin apologized, his mother would let him out. Eventually, Calvin learned to apologize immediately, so that he could get out of his room sooner. Calvin is demonstrating

a.      punishment.

b.     escape conditioning.

c.      avoidance conditioning.

d.     positive reinforcement.

67.   Martina’s upstairs neighbors play their stereo loudly. Martina hates loud music and has found that if she bangs on the ceiling with a broom, they turn the volume down. Now, as soon as the loud music starts, Martina bangs on the ceiling and it is muted. This is an example of

a.      positive reinforcement.

b.     shaping.

c.      escape conditioning.

d.     avoidance conditioning.

68.   Krystle is always late for meetings. After many stern looks and scoldings from her coworkers, Krystle learns that if she brings snacks to the meetings, her coworkers will not scold her for being late. This is an example of ______ conditioning.

a.      escape

b.     avoidance

c.      second‑order

d.     latent

69.   Alfrieda hated the cold and so every October she moved to Florida and only came back to the Midwest in April, when it was warm again. This is an example of ______ conditioning.

a.      escape

b.     avoidance

c.      second-order

d.     classical

70.   When Tina leaves the bedroom door ajar, her husband knows that she will take kindly to his affections. When the door is shut, he knows that she would rather not be disturbed. The position of the bedroom door is called a(n) ______________ stimulus.

a.      primary

b.     variable

c.      discriminative

d.     unconditioned

71.   A store clerk has learned that if she smiles, customers will buy more. She has also learned that such increased purchases only occur when she smiles at male customers. Thus, the store clerk learns to smile only at men. In this example, men have become a

a.      discriminative stimulus.

b.     reinforcer.

c.      blocked stimulus.

d.     punisher.

72.   Bart notices that his father, Homer, is usually in an agreeable mood after his mother, Marge, fixes him pork chops. However, Homer is quite grumpy after a meal of three-eyed fish. Bart has learned that it is much in his favor to ask Homer permission to do fun things on pork chop night, and to avoid asking such questions when three-eyed fish is served. Bart is using the type of meal served as

a.      a discriminative stimulus.

b.     a secondary reinforcer.

c.      vicarious conditioning.

d.     negative reinforcement.

73.   Alex has learned that if his mom is upset and he praises her, she will cook him a great meal. However, if he praises his mom when she is in a good mood, she responds by saying, “Are you trying to butter me up?” and doesn’t cook at all. In this example Alex’s mom’s mood is

a.      a discriminative stimulus.

b.     a reinforcer.

c.      under stimulus control.

d.     a stimulus predictor.

74.   Tim doesn’t want to run into his ex-girlfriend on campus, so he changes the route that he used to take to get to class when he did see her.  The first day he does this, Tim does not run into his ex-girlfriend.  Tim ends up using this route for a month because he fails to run into her.  Tim has learned through ______ conditioning.

a.      classical

b.     vicarious

c.      escape

d.     avoidance

75.   Theresa discovers that reading her text the night before a sociology test is an effective study strategy. She decides to try the same thing in studying for psychology quizzes. Her study behavior has

a.      discriminated.

b.     been classically conditioned.

c.      generalized.

d.     been punished.

76.   Children are often aware of which conditions are most favorable when asking a parent for an advance on their allowance. Psychologists call such conditions

a.      discriminative stimuli.

b.     secondary reinforcers.

c.      primary reinforcers.

d.     conditioned stimuli.

77.   In order to get her roommate to start cleaning her side of the room, Alisa starts complimenting her on the smallest efforts she makes to keep her side tidy. Alisa then withholds complimenting her roommate until she does more extensive cleaning tasks. This type of strategy is known as

a.      shaping.

b.     stimulus generalization.

c.      primary reinforcement.

d.     stimulus discrimination.

78.   Lars is trying to get his dog, Trixie to “sit up”.  So he starts rewarding her first when she lies down.  Then he rewards her when she is sitting on her backside. And finally he only rewards her when she sits up with her paws off the ground.  Lars got Trixie to “sit up” by using

a.      shaping.

b.     secondary reinforcement.

c.      backward conditioning.

d.     stimulus discrimination.

79.   Jia is a bear trainer at the circus.  She wants to teach Barney the bear to ride a unicycle. To do this, Jia first rewards Barney for sitting up. Then she rewards Barney only if he sits on the unicycle seat.  Next she rewards him only for sitting on the unicycle seat and raising his paws towards the pedals and so on. By show time, Barney can ride the unicycle. This method is called

a.      second-order conditioning.

b.     reconditioning.

c.      shaping.

d.     latent learning.

80.   Lenny is trying to teach his pet pig how to roll over. Lenny gives his pig a treat for laying down, then gives another treat for rolling on his side, then gives another treat for rolling half way over, then gives another treat for when the pig finally learned to roll over all the way. Lenny’s technique is known as

a.      classical conditioning.

b.     negative reinforcement.

c.      discriminative learning.

d.     shaping.

81.   Julio wants his daughter to learn to play a new song on the piano. At first he rewards her when she just sits down to practice. After a while he only rewards her if she hits the right notes for the first part of the song.  Eventually, he only rewards her if she plays the song perfectly. This is an example of

a.      shaping.

b.     insight learning.

c.      negative reinforcement.

d.     classical conditioning.

82.   Adia, a psychology instructor, is trying to get her students to discuss more in class. At first she gives them points for small amounts of class participation, but she keeps making them participate more for the same amount of points until she has them participating a great deal in class. Adia is using the operant conditioning technique of ______________ to get her class to behave as she desires.

a.      secondary reinforcement

b.     punishment

c.      negative reinforcement

d.     shaping

83.   Marge and Homer would like to teach their teenage son, Bart, to put away his skateboard when he’s finished playing with it. To accomplish this, Homer would like to use punishment, but instead, Marge compliments Bart when his skateboard is left closer and closer to the garage. By the end of the week, Bart is leaving his skateboard inside the garage. Marge has used the technique of

a.      negative reinforcement.

b.     penalty.

c.      primary reinforcement.

d.     shaping.

84.   Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?

a.      Pain

b.     Water

c.      Praise

d.     Cigarettes

85.   During every pay period that Shauna isn’t late to work, she gets a bonus added to her paycheck. As a result, Shauna is never late to work. The extra money added to her paycheck is a(n)

a.      discriminative stimulus.

b.     operant.

c.      primary reinforcer.

d.     secondary reinforcer.

86.   What kind of reinforcer is money?

a.      Primary

b.     Discriminative

c.      Negative

d.     Secondary

87.   Tyrell wants to teach his two daughters, Sarah and Mia, to practice their golf swing every day.  Each time after Sarah finishes practicing, he gives her five dollars, and each time after Mia finishes practicing, he gives her a handful of M&Ms.  Sarah is receiving a __________ reinforcer and Mia is receiving a __________ reinforcer.

a.      secondary; secondary

b.     primary; primary

c.      secondary; primary

d.     primary; secondary

88.   In token economies, therapists give mental patients tokens such as poker chips for desired behaviors.  The tokens reinforce desired behaviors because they can be exchanged for TV time, desserts, and other desired commodities.  The tokens are thus ______ reinforcers.

a.      primary

b.     secondary

c.      negative

d.     partial

89.   Russell’s mom wants him to study for two hours each night, so she gives him treats during the evening. Sometimes she gives him the treats after ten minutes, sometimes after thirty minutes. On the average, Russell is given a treat every twenty minutes. Which reinforcement schedule is Russell’s mom utilizing?

a.      Fixed-ratio

b.     Variable-ratio

c.      Vixed-interval

d.     Variable-interval

90.   It has been rumored that campus parking enforcement officers receive a $10 bonus for every twenty tickets they write. An unnamed campus parking administrator has remarked off the record, “This ______________ schedule of reinforcement keeps our officers diligent and busy.”

a.      variable-ratio

b.     fixed-ratio

c.      variable-interval

d.     fixed-interval

91.   You buy a new car that always starts instantly on cold mornings (continuous reinforcement).  It suddenly fails one time and you immediately call a service station.  Suppose, however, that your car often gives you trouble on cold mornings (variable reinforcement).  It is likely that you will try to start the car several times before calling a service station due to the ___________ effect.

a.      partial reinforcement extinction

b.     successive approximation

c.      secondary reinforcement

d.     delayed reinforcement

92.   Extinction will be most rapid after a history of ______________ reinforcement.

a.      variable-ratio

b.     variable-interval

c.      fixed-ratio

d.     continuous

93.   Fred was tired of hearing two-year-old Pebbles cry whenever she did not get her way. Fred decided to ignore Pebbles anytime she had a crying outburst. Over the course of several weeks, the frequency of outbursts decreased and eventually ceased. What operant conditioning process was Fred utilizing?

a.      Shaping

b.     Negative reinforcement

c.      Second order

d.     Extinction

94.   The boy who jokingly “cried wolf” warned townspeople of the presence of a wolf when none was in fact present. Later, a wolf did appear, but the boy’s cries of warnings were ignored. What process explains why no one came to his aid?

a.      Backward acquisition

b.     Reconditioning

c.      Extinction

d.     Discrimination

95.   Charlie has taught his two dogs to fetch sticks. Max is reinforced every time he returns the stick to Charlie. Rover is not reinforced every time. After Charlie stops rewarding the dogs for fetching sticks, which dog will continue to fetch sticks the longest?

a.      Max

b.     Rover

c.      Neither will continue longer than the other.

d.     Cannot be determined

96.   Lance is a door-to-door insurance salesman.  Lance finds it hard to predict what his sales will be for any given day.  On some days he sells one policy for every three houses that he visits; on other days, he may sell one policy every twenty houses.  Lance is being rewarded on a ________ schedule.

a.      fixed-ratio

b.     fixed-interval

c.      variable-ratio

d.     variable-interval

97.   WLLR, the new local radio station, has a daily drawing for gift certificates to local restaurants.  Since it is a new station, the same listeners are calling in and winning several times.  As a result, WLLR implemented a rule that the same person cannot win again for thirty days after a win.  This is an example of a _____ reinforcement schedule.

a.      fixed-ratio

b.     variable-ratio

c.      fixed-interval

d.     variable-interval

98.   Chuck works on the assembly line at Widgets, Inc. Because he is a union employee, he is paid $10 for every fifteen widgets he makes. His coworker, Sally, is a nonunion worker and is only paid when the company makes money, which averages out to be two times per month. Chuck is reinforced on a ______________ schedule, while Sally is reinforced on a ______________ schedule.

a.      fixed-interval; variable-interval

b.     variable-interval; fixed-ratio

c.      fixed-interval; variable-ratio

d.     fixed-ratio; variable-interval

99.   Continued gambling behavior is best explained in terms of which process of learning?

a.      Classical conditioning

b.     Social learning

c.      Partial reinforcement

d.     Observational learning

100. Sally is a manager of a house-cleaning company and is paid with a monthly salary. Paul who works for Sally, gets paid by the number of houses he cleans. Paul gets paid on a ______________ schedule, while Sally gets paid on a ______________ schedule.

a.      fixed-interval; variable-interval

b.     variable-interval; variable-interval

c.      variable-ratio; fixed-ratio

d.     fixed-ratio; fixed-interval

101. In her kindergarten class, Tanesha gives the children star stickers for good behavior in class (i.e., raising their hands before speaking, being polite to other children, walking in line through the hallways). Tanesha gives a star sticker every time a good behavior occurs. Tanesha is using a(n) ________________ reinforcement schedule.

a.      fixed-ratio

b.     variable-ratio

c.      continuous

d.     interval

102. In Melody’s class she takes attendance on the average every 5 to 10 days, and students who are present receive extra points. This is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?

a.      Fixed-interval

b.     Fixed-ratio

c.      Variable-interval

d.     Variable-ratio

103. Jessica eats at “Honchos” a lot because, after buying five hamburgers, you get one free. Jessica is on a ______ schedule of reinforcement.

a.      fixed-ratio

b.     variable-ratio

c.      fixed-interval

d.     variable-interval

104. Heidi continues to play the slot machines hour after hour because they provide reinforcement on a ______________ schedule.

a.      continuous

b.     fixed-interval

c.      variable-interval

d.     variable-ratio

105. Rebekah loves to study and hates going to parties, but knows that she has to go to parties if she ever wants to get anywhere in life. In order to reinforce her “party-going” activity, Rebekah decides that she won’t study until she has been at a party for at least three hours. Rebekah is using a(n)

a.      classical conditioning technique.

b.     social learning paradigm.

c.      opponent-process motivational strategy.

d.     activity preference hierarchy.

106. Which of the following would be the best example of Premack’s preference hierarchy for a normal child?

a.      “When you eat your spinach, you can go outside and play with your friends.”

b.     “If you do not want your spinach, give it to the dog.”

c.      “Eat your spinach and you will grow up big and strong like your father.”

d.     “If you do not eat your spinach, you will be punished.”

107. Dave wants to begin his own self-modification project for weight control but is having difficulty in establishing meaningful reinforcers. After much deliberation, Dave decided to allow himself to listen to music, one of his favorite pastimes, at the end of the day only after he had managed to stay within his daily calorie limit. Dave is attempting to use

a.      a principle put forth by Premack.

b.     stimulus control.

c.      secondary reinforcers.

d.     Skinner’s law.

108. If you want a strong reinforcer, you should mildly stimulate the

a.      hypothalamus.

b.     substantia nigra.

c.      cerebellum.

d.     striatum.

109. When administering punishment, it is not useful for the punishment to be

a.      salient and severe enough to eliminate the undesirable behavior.

b.     accompanied by the identification and reinforcement of alternative, acceptable behaviors.

c.      administered with some explanation for the punishment.

d.     delayed, allowing the child to reflect on her behavior prior to punishment.

110. Keleka’s parents often deal with her misbehavior by not allowing her to watch her favorite TV program, Speed Racer. Marnie’s parents deal with Marnie’s misbehavior by spanking her. Keleka’s parents are using ______________ and Marnie’s parents are using ______________.

a.      punishment; negative reinforcement

b.     escape conditioning; avoidance conditioning

c.      negative reinforcement; punishment

d.     punishment; punishment

111. Marat had a terrible toothache and decided to go to the dentist. The dentist made the problem worse and Marat was in a lot more pain. Now, he no longer trusts dentists and is unlikely to go to one in the future, if he has a toothache. This is an example of

a.      penalty.

b.     punishment I.

c.      negative reinforcement.

d.     positive reinforcement.

112. Bill and Ben are about to have breakfast. Their mother asks Bill, “What would you like for breakfast?” Bill answers, “I would like some damn porridge.” She slaps him, then turns to Ben and asks, “And what would you like?” Ben answers, “I don’t really care, as long as it isn’t any of that damn porridge!” Ben’s misunderstanding highlights the importance of

a.      immediate and efficiently severe punishments.

b.     children learning through imitation.

c.      appropriate responses being identified and positively reinforced.

d.     specifying why punishment is being administered.

113. Jason loves to play one-on-one basketball with his older brother, Melvin. Jason tried to win, but could not beat his older brother. After much practice, Jason won a game. Melvin, a poor loser, would not play basketball with Jason for weeks after that game. Now, whenever Jason plays with his brother, he lets Melvin win. Jason has changed his behavior in response to

a.      learned helplessness.

b.     penalty.

c.      negative reinforcement.

d.     punishment.

114. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of punishment?

a.      Punishment is an aggressive act.

b.     Punishment gives no information on how to correct inappropriate behavior.

c.      Punishment produces unwanted side effects.

d.     Punishment suppresses autonomic arousal.

115. Ludwig spilled his cup of juice onto the floor three times which upset him because he loves his juice. His mother became upset and did not allow him to have juice for a week. As a result, the next time Ludwig’s mom gave him a glass of juice he was very careful not to spill it. Ludwig learned through

a.      positive reinforcement.

b.     punishment.

c.      negative reinforcement.

d.     penalty.

116. One day while Ted was cleaning his aquarium, he noticed the heater was still plugged in. He reached down with a wet hand and tried to unplug the cord. As a result, Ted received quite a shock. After that experience, Ted has never attempted to unplug an electrical cord with a wet hand. The effect the shock had on Ted’s behavior is known as

a.      negative reinforcement.

b.     punishment.

c.      positive reinforcement.

d.     shaping.

117. Wilma and Fred want to teach Dino, their dog, to fetch the newspaper.  Wilma wants to encourage Dino’s behavior when he brings in the newspaper. Fred wants to discourage Dino’s behavior when he brings in a stick instead. Wilma will most likely use ______, and Fred will most likely use ______.

a.      operant conditioning; classical conditioning

b.     positive reinforcers; negative reinforcers

c.      punishment; penalty

d.     reinforcers; punishment

118. Insomniacs tend to use their beds for non-sleeping activities such as reading, watching TV, writing letters, and so on. If they stop these activities, and begin to use the bed exclusively for sleep, there is a good chance that their insomnia will be eliminated. This example uses principles of

a.      skill learning.

b.     over-learning.

c.      operant conditioning.

d.     discriminant conditioning.

119. Which of the following statements best sums up the role of stimulus discrimination and stimulus control in operant conditioning? People

a.      will only learn to control the behavior of others.

b.     attempt to control their own behavior.

c.      tend to be biased toward certain types of stimuli.

d.     can learn to distinguish the situations in which a certain behavior will be rewarded.

120. Hailey thinks that it doesn’t matter how hard she studies for her classes. Sometimes she studies and other times she doesn’t, but her grades are always the same. Soon, Hailey never studies because she doesn’t see any reason to do so. Hailey is experiencing

a.      learned helplessness.

b.     social learning.

c.      latent learning.

d.     observational learning.

121. While she was growing up, Lindsay was repeatedly told by others that she can’t understand math concepts and she will never be any good at math.  By the time Lindsay reached high school math classes, she didn’t put any effort into the classes because she didn’t think any amount of effort would help her to do well at math.  This is an example of

a.      classical conditioning.

b.     second‑order conditioning.

c.      learned helplessness.

d.     stimulus discrimination.

122. Marcelo often gets migraine headaches. He has tried to take several different types of medication, but nothing seems to take the pain away. When his doctor recommends a new medication, Marcelo doesn’t even bother to go buy it.  Marcelo is experiencing

a.      negative reinforcement.

b.     learned helplessness.

c.      stimulus discrimination.

d.     avoidance conditioning.

123. Herbert, the rat, is put in a cage that is chilly.  He operates on the environment by moving around the cage and bar pressing. He discovers that moving around and bar pressing have no impact on the temperature of the cage or anything else.  Soon, Herbert stops moving around the cage at all and when the temperature could be controlled through bar pressing, he doesn’t figure it out. Herbert is experiencing

a.      learned helplessness.

b.     stimulus discrimination.

c.      punishment.

d.     negative reinforcement.

124. Jerome tried to please his parents by always being good, but whenever Jerome’s older brother, Tom, misbehaved, their parents would punish both Tom and Jerome. Jerome soon stopped trying to please his parents because he didn’t think it would make any difference. This change in Jerome’s behavior is an example of

a.      classical conditioning.

b.     vicarious conditioning.

c.      positive reinforcement.

d.     learned helplessness.

125. When she was young, Nadia’s father told her about a method of traveling in a straight line through a forest so she could find a way out if lost. Since she was always with her father when hiking, she never had a need to use this information. Many years later, while hiking alone, she did become lost but was able to escape the forest using her father’s technique. This demonstrates

a.      a cognitive map.

b.     avoidance conditioning.

c.      insight.

d.     latent learning.

126. Mike loves Q-mart and shops there often.  One day another customer asked Mike if he knew where turkey basters were in the store. Mike immediately gave directions to the exact aisle, even though he never looked for turkey basters himself.  Mike has displayed

a.      insight.

b.     vicarious mapping.

c.      latent learning.

d.     the rectangular bias.

127. The first time Elizabeth went to her local mall, she had a difficult time finding her way around, but after several visits, she finds it very easy to get where she is going. Elizabeth has

a.      insight into the layout of the mall.

b.     experienced observational learning.

c.      developed a cognitive map of the mall.

d.     experienced social learning.

128. Jelena is studying in her apartment when suddenly the power goes out. She has to walk to the kitchen to get a flashlight and is surprised by how well she “navigates” without bumping into anything in the dark. She is able to do this because she has formed a(n)

a.      conditioned response.

b.     cognitive map.

c.      unconditioned response.

d.     mental proposition.

129. Benji spends his days in a dog pen. After seeing another dog running around the neighborhood, Benji began to pace. Suddenly, he tipped over his dog house, climbed on top of it, and jumped out of the pen. According to Wolfgang Köhler, Benji’s performance demonstrated

a.      insight.

b.     latent learning.

c.      skill learning.

d.     Skinner box conditioning.

130. Four-year-old Nukeysha wants the cookies that are on the counter but is too short to reach them, so she sits on the floor with a puzzled look on her face. Suddenly she moves a chair to the counter, jumps on top of it, and grabs the cookies. Nukeysha’s behavior can best be described as an example of

a.      insight learning.

b.     observational learning.

c.      classical conditioning.

d.     avoidance conditioning.

131. Brandon is trying to get out of his crib. He tries sticking his legs through the bars, hitting the bars with his arms, and butting them with his head. He realizes that he is getting nowhere. Then suddenly Brandon tries climbing over the top of the bars, and he breaks free. This illustrates

a.      insight.

b.     escape conditioning.

c.      use of cognitive maps.

d.     vicarious conditioning.

132. One aspect common to Tolman’s research on latent learning and Köhler’s research on insight is

a.      negative reinforcement.

b.     vicarious reinforcement.

c.      slow, gradual improvement in performance.

d.     sudden, dramatic improvement in performance.

133. Köhler’s experiments involved putting a chimpanzee in a cage and placing a banana so that it was visible but out of the animal’s reach. The chimps had “tools” that, if properly used, could overcome any obstacles to the bananas. According to the textbook, which of the following was not observed by Köhler?

a.      Once a chimp solved a particular problem, it would immediately do the same thing in a similar situation.

b.     Chimps rarely tried a solution that did not work.

c.      Chimps would proceed by trial and error until they “happened upon” a particular solution.

d.     Chimps often reached a solution quite suddenly.

134. Daniel is working on his calculus homework. He stares at one of the problems for a long time without any progress. Suddenly, the solution comes to him! Daniel’s sudden grasp of the solution is an example of

a.      latent learning.

b.     insight.

c.      observational learning.

d.     subgoal analysis.

135. Jules is trying to get a couch through her front door, but is not having much success. She stops, stares at the couch, then the door, and suddenly realizes that she needs to turn the couch a different way. When she does so, the couch fits easily through the door. Which type of learning explains Jules’s solution to her problem?

a.      Latent learning

b.     Operant conditioning

c.      Classical conditioning

d.     Insight

136. While camping, Ben was trying to put up a new tent.  He forgot to bring the instructions and was having some trouble.  Twice he tried to put it together, but some pieces were left over and the tent quickly fell down.  Confused, he stood staring at the tent stakes, poles, ropes, and tarps.  Suddenly, through ______ he figured out the problem and set up the entire tent in five minutes.

a.      a cognitive map

b.     a schema

c.      insight

d.     observational learning

137. Which is the best example of vicarious conditioning?

a.      After watching her friend, a smoker, die of cancer, Laura quit smoking.

b.     A chimpanzee stacks boxes and climbs them to reach a piece of fruit.

c.      Children act aggressively after watching a video of an aggressive adult.

d.     You remember the layout of Disney World, even though you haven’t been there in five years.

138. Buford and Julian are in preschool.  Buford watches as Julian gets punished for eating paste. After that incident, Buford remembers Julian’s punishment and restrains himself from eating the tasty paste. Buford has learned through ______ conditioning.

a.      observational

b.     escape

c.      vicarious

d.     classical

139. Kong is scared to death of bananas and banana peels. However, he watches others eat bananas and receive a rewarding piece of candy every time they throw their banana peel away. Eventually, Kong began to eat bananas and throw the peels away. Kong learned through

a.      insight learning.

b.     classical conditioning.

c.      vicarious learning.

d.     second-order conditioning.

140. Rob watches his sister, Kathryn, being punished for “smarting off” to their mom. Rob learns that he should never “smart off” to his mom. Rob has experienced

a.      latent learning.

b.     avoidance conditioning.

c.      vicarious conditioning.

d.     escape conditioning.

141. Kelly was watching her mother get ready for work by putting on make‑up and fixing her hair.  Then, Kelly’s mother left the room and told Kelly to get ready for school.  Kelly began to imitate her mother by smearing make‑up on her face and fluffing her hair. This is an example of

a.      vicarious learning.

b.     observational learning.

c.      operant conditioning.

d.     mock learning.

142. When Imelda was young she used to be fascinated by shoe commercials on TV. She was particularly impressed by how happy people seemed to be when buying shoes. As an adult, Imelda goes shopping for shoes every chance she gets. This is an example of

a.      operant conditioning.

b.     classical conditioning.

c.      spontaneous conditioning.

d.     observational learning.

143. Penelope was spanked on several occasions for biting electrical cords. Simply by witnessing Penelope being spanked, Sebastian learned NOT to bite electrical cords. Sebastian’s behavior best illustrates

a.      classical conditioning.

b.     vicarious conditioning.

c.      escape conditioning.

d.     second-order conditioning.

144. To learn to look both ways before crossing the street, children merely need to hear about the consequences of getting hit by a car (instead of having to experience it themselves). This is an example of

a.      shaping.

b.     insight.

c.      vicarious conditioning.

d.     escape learning.

145. Hai-ri is trying to decide whether to allow her children to watch violent television programs. They enjoy seeing detective shows, but Hai-ri worries that seeing people hurt will make her children more likely to use violence themselves. According to the textbook, which of the following should you tell Hai-ri?

a.      Experiments prove that watching television violence causes violent behavior.

b.     Correlational studies prove that watching television violence causes violent behavior.

c.      Television violence may be one cause of violent behavior.

d.     Television violence is probably not the cause of violent behavior.

146. The association between media violence, including violence on television, and aggressive behavior is often attributed to _____ learning.

a.      programmed

b.     observational

c.      insight

d.     avoidance

147. Which of the following is true about the relationship between violence and watching violent TV?

a.      Watching violent TV and violence are positively correlated.

b.     Watching violent TV leads to violent behavior.

c.      Violent behaviors lead to increased time spent watching violent TV.

d.     All of the above.

148. Austin is a very aggressive child who watches a lot of violent programs on television. Research has found a statistically significant, positive correlation between watching television and behaving aggressively. Based on this correlational evidence, which of the following statements is true about Austin’s aggression?

a.      Watching violent programs on television caused Austin to behave aggressively.

b.     Austin has always been aggressive, and so he prefers to watch violent shows.

c.      If Austin’s parents refused to let him watch violent shows, Austin would stop behaving aggressively.

d.     Several factors could be influencing both Austin’s aggression and his preference for violent shows.

149. Neural network models predict that the weaker the connection between two items, the ______________ in connection strength when they are experienced together.

a.      smaller the increase

b.     greater the decrease

c.      greater the increase

d.     Neural network models do not deal with connections.

150. As the months passed, Kurt began taking more and more heroin because the initial dose didn’t seem to give him the same high.  Eventually Kurt was addicted to heroin.  According to opponent-process theory, ______ may have been the basis of Kurt’s dangerous addiction.

a.      sensitization

b.     learning

c.      habituation

d.     classical conditioning

151. Your knowledge of the word frog is made up of your knowledge of the four letters in that word, as well as all the “froggy” knowledge you have, and any other “froglike” experiences. This describes

a.      biopreparedness.

b.     distributed memory.

c.      a cognitive map.

d.     stimulus control.

152. Stephanie is studying her vocabulary words for German class. Each time she reads the German word and thinks of the English equivalent, she finds it easier to recall the meaning. Stephanie’s experience is best explained by the role of

a.      classical conditioning.

b.     operant conditioning.

c.      neural networks.

d.     latent learning.

153. Professor Titush believes that education should involve small-group problem-solving tasks and immediate reinforcement. He apparently endorses a(n) ______________ approach.

a.      identical elements

b.     active learning

c.      skill learning

d.     formal discipline

154. Jane has just begun teaching Psychology 100 and wants her students to participate during class.  She hopes that discussing the material, doing writing tasks, and working in small groups will help her students understand the material better.  Jane is attempting to use ______ in her class.

a.      cognitive maps

b.     latent learning

c.      insight learning

d.     active learning

155. Which of the following statements about cultural differences in scholastic achievement is true?

a.      The education community in the United States feels that the methods being used in this country are the best.

b.     The significance of cultural differences in learning and teaching is not yet clear.

c.      As early as first grade, U.S. students are already showing deficiencies in math skills when compared to Asian students.

d.     Any differences are probably inherent in the students and are not affected by classroom activities.

156. Perrin is sitting in front of a device that shows a few sentences with key words left blank. It is his job to supply the correct words. Perrin will be immediately reinforced (or not), depending on the accuracy of his answers. This is an example of

a.      active learning.

b.     skill learning.

c.      a teaching machine.

d.     an identical element.

157. Gretchen absolutely loves going to school. Her teacher uses enjoyable teaching methods, such as small-group problem-solving tasks, discussion of mini-essays written in class, and short review sessions of the previous half hour of class. Gretchen’s teacher is obviously taking a(n) ______________ approach.

a.      identical elements

b.     formal discipline

c.      teaching machine

d.     active learning

158. Recently, Callie’s calculus TA has started having Callie’s class form small groups and work on solving problems, rather than just lecturing to them for the whole class session. Callie thinks that this method of teaching makes her think more deeply about the material than when she just sits and takes notes. Callie’s TA is using ______________ as an instructional method.

a.      skill learning

b.     active learning

c.      insight learning

d.     instructional development

159. When Tim asks his psychology class a question, if no one answers after several seconds, Tim answers the question himself for the class. Tom, another psychology instructor, requires everyone in his class to answer every question by writing on cards that he collects. Assuming that Tim and Tom are equally competent instructors who cover the same material, which class should perform better on the upcoming midterm exam?

a.      Tim’s class

b.     Tom’s class

c.      They should perform equally.

d.     Tim’s class on multiple-choice questions and Tom’s class on essay questions

160. When Joel asks his psychology class a question, he calls on only those students whose hands are raised. Guff, another psychology instructor, requires all students in his class to answer every question by holding up a card showing their written responses. Assuming that Joel and Guff are equally competent instructors who cover the same material, which class should perform better on the upcoming midterm?

a.      Joel’s class

b.     Guff’s class

c.      They should perform equally.

d.     Joel’s class on multiple-choice questions and Guff’s class on essay questions

161. The most critical component of skill learning is

a.      acquisition.

b.     guidance.

c.      practice.

d.     imagination.

162. Fred has decided to learn to play the harmonica. In order to learn this skill most efficiently, Fred should adopt an approach that emphasizes

a.      observation.

b.     visualization.

c.      practice.

d.     insight.

163. Sarah wants to learn to play the piano.  Research on skill learning suggests that ______ will be the most critical component in Sarah’s learning process.

a.      immediate feedback

b.     writing music

c.      repeated practice

d.     continual guidance

164. Grasping how to perform a complex action sequence, such as driving a car, pitching a baseball, or playing the harmonica, is referred to as

a.      skill learning.

b.     trace learning.

c.      insight.

d.     part-task learning.

165. Pamela and Martin are practicing a complicated dance to be filmed for a soft-drink commercial, but are having trouble with one section. Which of the following would be the best way for them to improve their learning of the dance? They should practice the entire dance

a.      until they can perform it perfectly once.

b.     from the end to the beginning.

c.      without seeking feedback from other performers, because that might only confuse them.

d.     during several shorter sessions, rather than one long session.

Essay Questions

1.         Think back to one of the many episodes of your life where you have learned through classical conditioning.  Please recount the learning experience, being sure to point out the different stimulus à response components. Did you experience stimulus generalization? Has extinction occurred?

2.         Set up positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment programs that a parent could use to teach a ten-year-old child to clean his room. What are the drawbacks of using punishment? What is the most effective way to use punishment?

3.         Explain the various types of intermittent schedules of reinforcement and how rates of responding differ for the different schedules.